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The 4 Returns Diagnosis consists of 5 tabs, as you can see below. The first tab gathers some general information about the landscape. The other 4 tabs are about the 4 Returns. It is recommended to do the Returns one by one, and not to cover all in one session. Filling in one return will take about 1 – 2 hours, but it can be shorter or longer depending on how elaborate you want to do the diagnosis and how many resources or stakeholders you need or want to consult. As long as you have an internet connection, your diagnosis is automatically saved. You can close the browser and the 4 Returns platform, and you can anytime reopen it and continue with your diagnosis. Good luck!

A country is a place of origin

Will be shown on the frontpage of the diagnose report

increase of the health of the ecosystem in the landscape

To assess the natural returns in the landscape, first a few landscape wide aspects will be treated and subsequently characteristics of the main ecosystems and/or land-use types within the landscape will be covered.

This factor is about ecosystem diversity within the landscape. In the explanation, you could describe the diversity of ecosystems in the landscape. Ecosystem diversity is the variety of different (natural) habitats, communities and ecological processes.

This factor is about landscape connectivity, including hydrological connectivity. In the explanation, you could describe the landscape connectivity (including hydrological connectivity), which is about the relative ease with which typical species can move through the landscape between patches of habitat. Habitat loss and fragmentation can reduce the size of populations and hinder the movement of individuals between increasingly isolated populations, threatening their long-term viability. Tidal movements are occuring naturally?

This factor is about landscape fragmentation. In the explanation, you could describe landscape fragmentation, which is the extent to which (semi) natural elements/fragments are present as a mosaic within intensively used lands types. Fragmentation happens when parts of a habitat are destroyed, leaving behind smaller unconnected areas. Describe whether waterways are uninterupted and natural habitats are dispersed over the landscape (e.g. forests) and connected to ensure dispersal, animal movement and genefow.

Capacity to retain and regulate water flows (watersheds). In a thriving landscape, at watershed/landscape level, vegetation and soils have there optimal sponge function, facalitating stormwater infiltration during thereby mitigating peakflows and ensuring baseflows during dry periods

To what extent is water supply equalling or exceeding demand throughout the year. Groundwater stocks are not depleted. In a thriving landscape, water demand (human consumption, irrigation, industrial, ecological flow) does not exceed supply at any given time throughout the year

Most landscapes encompass a mosaic of natural ecosystems and anthropogenic land use types (e.g. croplands). For the purpose of the 4 Returns diagnosis, the natural returns are assessed separately for each of the major ecosystems and land use types that can be distinguished in the landscape, following the IUCN Global Ecosystem Typology. This ecosystem classification framework comprises a nested hierarchy of units, distinguishing Realms, Biomes and Functional groups. Anthropogenically modified ecosystems/ land-use types are also incorporated into this typology. Consider all ecosystems and land use types within your landscapes that cover > 5% (rule of thumb) of the landscape. Create each of these ecosystems below: (Refer to the IUCN Global Ecosystem Typology for more information)

1

This could be the name corresponding Functional group within the selected biome or a (locally used) name that better describes the ecosystem e.g. mangrove forest; rice field, open water). (Multiple ecosystems/land use types within each realm/biome combination can be selected if relevant

This factor is about biodiversity in the landscape. In the explanation, you could describe the abundance and diversity of characteristic species, including Red Listed species" (similar to a reference ecosystem)

This factor is about soil health and soil erosion. In the explanation, you could describe physical, chemical and biological soil health based on pH and macro/micronutrient availability, absence of pollution, water holding capacity, soil compaction, soil organic matter, earth worms and/ microbial activity. For soil erosion, you could describe the presence of gullies, observed erosion signs, and experienced soil losses

This factor is about water quality and hydromorphology. In the explanation, you could describe the presence of characteristic fish, invertebrates and aquatic flora, presence/concentration of pollutants, river bank structure (solid/vegetated?), river continuity (promoted or inhibited?), or substrate of the river bed. You could also describe the degree of sedimentation due to upstream landuse practices (minimal or sedimentation issues?), and any other physical, chemical or biological characteristics.

This factor is about ecosystem degradation. In the explanation, you could describe the degree of ecosystem degradation (soil, water, biodiversity), as well as the main drivers of degradation of the ecosystem

Rate: current sustainability of ESS (food) extraction. Describe: importance of biome for food production. For natural ecosystems: relative importance as source of food to local communities

Rate: current sustainability of ESS (wood) extraction. Describe: importance of biome for the production of timber, wood fuel, gas, oil, medecinal plants. Excluding food and freshwater.

Rate: current carbon sequestration. Describe: potential of carbon stocks in biome relative to their carrying capacity (levels in reference ecosystems), carbon sequestration potential, and the risk of carbon loss by natural and anthropogenic disturbance (threats to carbon stocks)

people are inspired, and as a result they feel a sense of purpose and hope for their landscape and future.

Knowing, perceiving and being cognizant of something

This factor is about whether people are acquainted with landscape restoration initiatives and challenges. In the explanation, you could describe the general awareness of ongoing restoration projects (e.g. through on- and offline interactions, knowledge sharing taking place, or other communication channels in place), as well as awareness of degradation, knowledge of benefits and opportunities of landscape restoration, and a general broader understanding of the landscape

This factor is about the presence of people that act as inspirators for others. In the explanation, you could describe the number and presence of changemakers (they might also be called restoration champions and could be charismatic people or powerful institutions) that act as inspirators for others, such as decision makers, community members, or farmers. They lead to more awareness and connecteness through their actions, initiatives, messaging, or art work. You could also describe if they are national or local.

This factor is about participation of people in the landscape in activities related to landscape restoration. In the explanation, you could describe the participation of communities in events organized by the practitioner to promote and learn about holistic landscape restoration (e.g. festivals, workshops).

This factor is about the presence of sources of inspiration such as pilots, demo's, and regenerative farms. In the explanation, you could describe the number and type of sites (pilots, demo's, farms, etc.) where people in the landscape can visit and experience the effects of restoration and regenerative agriculture. You could also describe whether there is knowledge of the meaning, sources and triggers of inspiration, and to what extent this istranslated into actions to increase (inspired) restoration action of local communities.

The relation people experience with the landscape, other people and the nature that is in the landscape

This factor is about land stewardship. In the explanation, you could describe to what extent people in the landscape are caring for their land, and if people have passion/pride for their landscape and motivation to take care of the land.

This factor is about the extent to which individuals include nature as part of their identity and feel connected to nature. In the explanation, you could describe the perception of landscape stakeholders feeling connected with nature.

This factor is about the attachment and pride people feel about their landscape. In the explanation, you could describe to what extent landscape stakeholders feel attached to the landscape, how strong the emotional bond between people and the landscape is, whether people are leaving/entering the landscape (description migration patterns), if people experience a sense of belonging, and if farms are belonging to the same family for generations.

This factor is about the future and purpose people see for themselves in the landscape. In the explanation, you could describe to what extent landscape stakeholders are feeling hope and purpose for the future, and if they are hopeful and expect good things of the future.

This factor is about the future and purpose people see for themselves in the landscape. In the explanation, you could describe to what extent landscape stakeholders are feeling hope and purpose for the future, and if they are hopeful and expect good things of the future.

A change in practices and land use of people in the landscape, related to all practices that affect the environment

Regeneration support & momentum

This factor is about a change in land use-, agricultural-, waste-, and water management practices of people in the landscape in. In the explanation, you could describe the estimated number and background of landscape stakeholders adopting (eco) regenerative and restorative measures, as well as a description of what type of practices are implemented (examples of agricultural practices are: farmers monitoring impact, NTFP harvesting practices, reduced tillage, green cover, sustainable fertilizer, agroforestry, sustainable irrigation, rotational grazing, and biodiversity measures at farms. Concerning other practices: these could be practices at the community level such as forest management plans in development, community area with active soil, water, or biodiversity improvement measures, sustainable extraction of woodfuel resources, or sustainable waste management).

This factor is about non-target landscapes & people replicating initiatives, projects, or practices. In the explanation, you could describe non-target persons / communites (inside or outside the landscape) actually replicating practices, spin-off initiatives, and adoption of tools and methods by others inside & outside the landscape.

strengthening communities in landscapes by increasing livelihood opportunities and community engagement

Developing and strengthening the skills, abilities, processes and resources of organizations and communities in relation to landscape restoration & the presence of networks consisting of interconnected and engaged people

This factor is about the stimulation, creation or facilitation of networks consisting of interconnected and engaged people. In the explanation, you could describe the networks stimulated, created or facilitated focused on learning about regenerative/sustainable practices, restoration, learning, or businesses. Describe for example aliances, coalitions, and collaborations set up with partners. Examples of such networks could be a farmer’s support network, a community activism network, a regenerative business network, or a network of landscape practitioners.

This factor is about the representation and participation of (local) stakeholders in a broader networks. In the explanation, you could describe the extent of the networks, and the background and number of members of these (learning / business) networks.

This factor is about trust and cooperation within existing and new networks. In the explanation, you could describe the perception of network/community members on trust and connectedness in networks / community groups / partnerships

This factor is about opportunities to participate in trainings and events offered, & facilitation of knowledge exchang. In the explanation, you could describe the # and type of trainings organized focused on restoration & regeneration (workshops, CoP's, trainings, educational events) and the number and background of participations in trainings. You could also describe if peer-to-peer learning is taking place or facilitated.

 This factor is about the use of (local) expertise/practices and traditional knowledge. In the explanation, you could describe to what extent this is taking place.

This factor is about research conducted and applied in landscape, and restoration techniques applied to projects. In the explanation, you could describe to what extent this is taking place, and what kind of research is conducted or missing.

the sustained ability of a community to utilize available resources to respond to, withstand, and recover from adverse situations.

This factor is about physical and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food. In the explanation, you could describe the perception of community members about the access to secure and nutritious food, improvements in nutrition, malnutrition and obesity, and the amount of people experiencing food shortage.

This factor is about trust and familiarity within community groups. In the explanation, you could describe the perception of community members on familiarity and trust within and between communities, social cohesion & solidarity, presence of 'socializing places' such as plaza's and community centres, shared resources, strength of social relationships, and collaboration within communities.

This factor is about preparedness for natural disasters. In the explanation, you could describe the perception of community members on preparedness for natural disasters, vulnerability to challenging environmental conditions and climate change, how communites adapt (presence of local risk reduction strategies, crisis events leveraged), and the presence of regulating ecosystem services.

This actor is about community access to basic services and infrastructure. In the explanation, you could describe access to primary and secondary schools, clean drinking water, access to safe sanitation (WASH), housing, waste management, and access to energy.

In the explanation, you could describe the general perceived quality of life. For exaple, how extenstive is the population in poverty, do people see a future in tgeur landscape, do people have access to health care, or do people experience a sense of place.

inclusive and diverse participation in activities and fairness in distribution of the benefits of restoration activities

This factor is about the perception of landscape stakeholders on benefits from restoration. In the explanation, you could describe to what extent restoration benefits are shared equally with local commuities and (marginalized) peoplem and to what extent local communities are generally benefitting from restoration (food, wood and raw materials, freshwater supply, increased supply of forest products).

This factor is about benefits that nature provides to people. In the explanation, you could describe the benefits that nature provides to people (classified in provisioning, regulating, and cultural ecosystem services), and to what extent local people are benefitting from these ecosystem services.

This factor is about inclusive and diverse participation in the restoration sector, marginalized groups represented. In the explanation, you could describe the inclusion and representation of minority groups (youth, women, indigenous people), and the perception of landscape stakeholders whether the practitioner is inclusive and responsive in activities and job provision.

This factor is about measures implemented to improve social equity. In the explanation, you could describe the measures taken by practitioner to improve social equity (inclusive and diverse participation) and sharing of benefits. These measures could for example be policy influence, governance mechanisms, arrangements and processes supporting benefit sharing.

This factor is about human rights and gender equality. In the explanation, you could describe to what extent gender equality and women's rights are promoted, if there's an (increasing) female labour-market participation, if there's (improved) equality in the economic independence of women and men and in decision-making, whether gender-based (physical and/or sexual) violence is combatted, and if the UN declaration of human rights is respected: right to live, liberty, free speech, privacy, social security.

The provision and quality of paid labour services

This factor is about the creation of jobs in the restoration and regenerative agriculture sector. In the explanation, you could describe the number and quality of direct and indirect jobs supported by landscape restoration practices

This factor is about equal job opportunities. In the explanation, you could describe to what extent there are equal (job) opportunities for community members (age, gender, background)

This factor is about job satisfaction and working conditions. In the explanation, you could describe the perception of job satisfaction and working conditions of people employed in the landscape and farmers reached by the practitioner.

Strengthened local economy: financial returns are all monetary profit generated by restoration and conservation activities on the longer term, for all stakeholders in the landscape.

Financial gain for households and landusers (farmers, foresters, fishers, tourism, other land use practices etc) from, linked to or as a result of restoration, regenerative and sustainable practice

This factor is about improved income at the household level through restoration or regenerative agriculture. In the explanation, you could describe whether households experience an increased income as a result of restoration, profitability of community/farmer entrepreneurial activities, yield-costs-profit, and whether there are improved households have savings.

This factor is about the diversity and number of income streams for households, farmers & community members, and the security of their income. In the explanation, you could describe the adequacy of income, household economic vulnerability (do adults have an account at a bank and a savings account ), and whether income is drawn from two or more sources to protects people against the loss of your sole job. For example, multiple crops are grown and farming is complemented with sustainable tourism

This factor is about access to (diverse) financing mechanisms of households. In the explanation, you could describe the presence of diverse investment mechanisms for sustainable activities: for example loan guarantees.

Business profitability relating to size, increased value, assets etc

This factor is about sustainable business cases developed. In the explanation, you could describe the number and type of sustainable/regenerative business cases developed. You could also describe opportunities to set up businesses (costs and burdens for entrepreneurs), and interest to set up regenerative businesses.

This factor is about profitability of business cases developed. In the explanation, you could describe gross profit vs. net profit, expected (positive) cash flows for (matured) restorative businesses, or room for reinvesting in businesses (reinvestment potential).

This factor is about the presence of bankable businesses and projects to attract investors and business viability and vulnerability. In the explanation, you could describe how attractive business cases are to investors, and general 'vulnerability' of sustainable businesses cases developed. For this, you could describe the [resence of a business plan to mobilise and coordinate finance from multiple sources, public-private partnerships, blended finance mechanisms , mitigation of (business) risks, presence of risk reduction strategies, economic viability, climate risks, and ability of businesses to withstand climate change impact.

This factor is about yield for agricultural enterprises, fishery, forestry, or resource extraction from other land uses. In the explanation, you could describe the quality/extent of yield, net primary productivity, and costs of consumbale inputs (seeds, fertilizers, insecticides) and capital inputs (tractors, machinery, irrigation systems, etc.)

This factor is about access to (diverse) financing mechanisms of businesses. In the explanation, you could describe the presence of diverse investment mechanisms for sustainable businesses and products: tax benefits, subsidies, grants, donations, funds, and loan guarantees, presence of a business plan to mobilise and coordinate finance from multiple sources, public-private partnership, blended finance mechanisms

This factor is about the presence of all essential actors in the business network/environment. In the explanation, you could describe if there is an 'ecosystem' of businesses including all needed functions such as bankable originating groups, knowledge institutions, impact investing. You could also describe what is missing to have a complete/functioning business network and current collaboration in (regenerative) business networks.

This factor is about economic incentives for regenerative products. In the explanation, you could describe which incentives are present for regenerative businesses or practices, such as subsidies (describe economic incentives), margin on regenerative products, or significance of price premium for regenerative farmers; to what extent does the price premium attract/benefit farmers.

This factor is about the allocation of profit to sustainable transitions. In the explanation, you could describe the ability to re-invest and change business model towards more sustainable or regenerative, and burder to convert conventional agriculture to regenerative.

Business profitability relating to size, increased value, assets etc

This factor is about total public investments in the landscape. In the explanation, you could describe the presence, extent and diversity of public finance mobilised for the landscape, landscape practitioners, related partners, and businesses (for example tax benefits, subsidies, grants, donations, funds). You could also describe the presence of adversive incentives that promote unsustainable practices.

This factor is about total private investments in the landscape. In the explanation, you could describe the presence, extent and diversity of private finance mobilised for the landscape, landscape practitioners, related partners, sustainable businesses and products (for example impact investment, grants, donations, funds).

This factor is about the ability to access directly or indirectly from innovative finance mechanisms. In the explanation, you could describe the presence and type of innovative mechanisms that provide funds for restoration, regenerative activities and/or sustainable practices, such as payment for ecosystem services, carbon credits, biodiversity credits, or price premiums. You could also describe the number of landscape stakeholders that are making use of these new financial mechanisms.

Exchange of goods and services resulting from restoration, regenerative activities or sustainable practices

This factor is about new revenu streams for which markets could emerge, such as carbon/biodiversity. In the explanation, you could describe the presence of new revenue streams for attributable assets (carbon, biological, wetlands, forests) for which new markets or payments for ecosystem services could emerge

This factor is about the development of markets for regenerative products or restoration actitivites. In the explanation, you could describe (new) markets developed for sustainable products, what type of markets these are, how big they are, value chain infrastructure, and landscape stakeholders benefiting from increased access to new markets.

This factor is about the size of sustainable/regenerative markets. In the explanation, you could describe the extent/size of sustainable businesses, amount of customers in market, off-set market of sustainable businesses (so apart from being viable/profitable, how extensive is the market currently? Only very small yet, or already a considerable market present for products?)

This factor is about local value added by regenerative and restoration products and businesses. In the explanation, you could describe vertical integration and localization of values chain, added value that is created locally, at the local market (instead of value created by exporting bulk to other markets), and the presence of short chains.

This factor is about the presence and use of sustainable certification schemes. In the explanation, you could describe the presence of regenerative or sustainable certification schemes, how widely they are applied (are many farmers/hectares certified?), and the value of certified goods on the market.

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