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4 Returns

Diagnosis Report

South Veluwe Watershed – Netherlands

South Veluwe Watershed

Table of contents

The 4 Returns Diagnosis

The 4 Returns Framework: a short recap

South Veluwe Watershed

Key landscape characteristics

4 Returns in South Veluwe Watershed

Current state: Return of inspiration

Current state: Natural Returns

Current state: Social Returns

Current state: Financial Returns

Reflections on the 4 Returns Diagnosis outcomes

Potential follow-ups

Input and Contributions to this 4 Returns Diagnosis


The 4 Returns Diagnosis

The purpose of this 4 Returns Diagnosis report is to offer a comprehensive snapshot of the current status of the 4 Returns within the landscape. Its content is gathered through interviews with landscape stakeholders and, if chosen, is complemented by existing resources such as local information, literature, and reports. It’s worth noting that this diagnosis is not intended as a definitive landscape assessment report. Instead, consider it as a glimpse into the landscape, serving as a starting point for discussions to shape strategies and interventions for holistic landscape restoration.
Although the core purpose of the 4 Returns Diagnosis is to assess the current state of the 4 Returns, potential applications vary depending on the landscape’s stage and needs. These potential uses include:
  • Creating a shared understanding about the 4 Returns
  • Identifying focus areas and barriers to restoration
  • Determining the strategic direction of a holistic landscape restoration plan
  • Providing input to design pilots and interventions for holistic landscape restoration

The 4 Returns Framework: a short recap

The 4 Returns – inspiration, social, financial, natural – are used as a lens to take a holistic picture of landscape. This report provides insight into the current state of the 4 returns in this landscape, as well as the main barriers for holistic landscape restoration. In 2019, Commonland, the Landscape Finance Lab and Wetlands International, with support from the IUCN Commission on Ecosystem Management, published ‘The 4 Returns Framework for landscape restoration’. This publication presents the 4 Returns Framework for landscape restoration and describes how it could help achieve long-term success in regenerating landscapes to become living, productive and resilient landscapes. The 4 Returns Framework connects among others ecology, community values, hope and a sense of purpose, businesses, and long-term economic sustainability at landscape level. It enables government, businesses, and communities to co-create and deliver a common vision for a resilient landscape:

  • It is a conceptual and practical framework to help stakeholders achieve 4 RETURNS (inspiration, social returns, natural returns, financial returns);
  • by following five processes (5 ELEMENTS: a landscape partnership, shared understanding, landscape vision and collaborative planning, taking action, and monitoring and learning);
  • within a multifunctional landscape (3 ZONES: natural, combined and economic zones);
  • with this transformation taking place over a realistic time period (MINIMUM 20 YEARS), which corresponds to one generation.

South Veluwe Watershed

Key landscape charactericstics

Estimated population

This region is geographically defined by its place in between ancient glacial hills in the east around Rhenen and in the west around Renkum as well as its border to the national nature reserve the Veluwe in the north and the river Rhine in the south. In this region, we find several urban areas, of which Ede is the greatest city with about 80000 inhabitants and Veenendaal second most populous with 63000 inhabitants. The region covers several municipalities of two different provinces: municipalities of Veenendaal and of Rhenen are situated within Province of Utrecht and the municipalities of Wageningen, Ede and Renkum are situated in Province of Gelderland. The cities of Veenendaal and Ede are described to be part of the Bible Belt, a cluster of Protestantism. In the centre of the region, Wageningen is situated, a city that expanded strongly due to the presence of the Wageningen University and Research. Therefore, a great part of the inhabitants is student as well as international, in contrast to the urban areas around. Interestingly and indicative of the region, the municipality of Ede harbours the greatest count of chickens of all municipalities in the Netherlands, namely 3,6 million chickens (2020).

No of hectares

Combined zone Economic zone

Landscape recognitions

The area is not (yet) recognised as one landscape or territory by other organisations apart from Stroomgebied themselves. There is no official head of the region. As described earlier, the region covers several municipalities of two different provinces: municipalities of Veenendaal and of Rhenen are situated within Province of Utrecht and the municipalities of Wageningen, Ede and Renkum are situated in Province of Gelderland. The Natura 2000 network is network of nature areas of European importance. The main objective of the network is to safeguard biodiversity in Europe. For each area, core tasks are created and sense of urgnecy is assigned to some. In the landscape, we find several areas of the Natura 2000 network. The Watershed is bordered in the south by the river Nederrijn. This rivers and its floodplains are part of the Natura 2000 areas, protected nature areas within Europe. Part of the landscape, is the Binnenveld and here two plots of Natura 2000 area are situated, under the Habitats Directive (111ha). Under the Birds and Habitats directives is the region between Bennekom and Renkum towards including the Ginkelse Heide, bordering the bioregion and being part of the Veluwe.

Characteristic Flora and Fauna

Characteristic of this landscape is the close proximity of the heather fields and sanddunes of the Veluwe, the glacial hills and its stream valleys, the wetlands of Binnenveld and the river the Rhine, as well as close proximity to urbanized areas. The higher and sandy Veluwe create habitat for heather fields and forests and fosters the capture of a high amount of water. This area plays a vital role in water regulation, habitat connectivity and carbon sequestration as well as having a high recreational value for the heather, open spaces and spotting wildlife. It harbours the Dutch Big Five: Red deer, wild boar, fox, roe deer and the Schotse hooglander. The wolf has recently returned in the South of the Veluwe as well, indicating the importance of the region for connecting habitats. The seepage coming from the watershed in the Veluwe rises in surrounding areas, creating species rich grasslands and the historical formation of peat. The Binnenveld has flowery meadows, ponds, groves, hedgerows, natural fields and lime marsh as well as the endangered Trilveen. This diversity gives rise to diverse plant species and the wide fields foster an important habitat for (migratory) birds. The floodplains around the river Nederrijn also provide important habitat for birds. The streamvalley of Renkum is vital for restoration of insect species including endangered butterfly species. The diversity in ecosystems creates a really characteristic area to live in, a place where nature lovers return to.

Essential ecosystem services

The landscape Stroomgebied Zuid-Veluwe consists of several diverse ecosystems and provides essential ecosystem services that are crucial for supporting livelihoods in the region. The communities have a high reliance on products from supermarkets for food which lowers the awareness on reliance of the ecosystem services in the landscape Here we highlight some outspoken ones in this landscape: Regulating: - Water purification and retention: the landscape is strongly formed by waterflows and bodies.The waterquality determines the quality of the flora and fauna in the different biomes and the communities are highly dependent on clean ground waters. - Flood management: the landscape encounters increasing water extremeties, regulating waterstreams is a key service in this region. Provisioning: -Water supply: The watershed of the Veluwe is a crucial source of drinking water for the communities in the landscape. -Arable lands and grass and fodder for livestock for food Supporting: -Healthy soils -Space for wildlife, the landscape provides habitat for (migrating) birds as well as many different mammals, as well as the larger mammals of the Dutch landscape. Some regions within the landscape fall under the habitat directives for their importance for wildlife. Cultural: -Knowledge & learning: experiments, excursions, curiousity -Physical health and mental wellbeing: Within the Netherlands, this landscape provides good access to natural areas from urbanised areas, increasing strongly this service. -Inspiration: This landscape is inspiring because of its diversity in ecosystems as well as its opportunities to meet educational restoration practises and regenerative farming.


4 Returns in South Veluwe Watershed

=Natural returns
=Inspiration
=Social returns
=Financial returns

The 4 Returns diagram

The upcoming chapters will explore each Return in greater detail. However, this 4 Returns diagram might help to see the full picture, serving as a window into the landscape. Although this diagram does not provide detailed information, it offers a comprehensive view by presenting all 4 Returns at a glance. Also, this diagram could help identify potential areas of interest. For instance, there might be an unexpected score on the ‘awareness’ domain when considering the Return of Inspiration. In that case, it could be interesting to look into the factors that make up the domain ‘awareness’ and the reasons behind their notably high or low scores in the chapter dedicated to the Return of Inspiration.

Some background: how the diagrams were created

The diagrams are based on ratings provided by the involved landscape stakeholders. Each Return comprises several domains. For example, the Return of Inspiration consists of the domains ‘Awareness’, ‘Connection to the landscape’, and ‘Behavioural change’. Each domain, in turn, consists of several factors, which are described in the chapter per Return. All factors have been scored on a scale from 1 to 4, indicating their state relative to the full potential of the factor in the landscape, as derived from local stakeholder inputs. Accordingly, a full bar means that the current state of the factor or domain is ‘good’ or ‘excellent’, and an empty bar means the current state is ‘not so good’, or ‘poor’.

  • Poor
  • Not so good
  • Good
  • Excellent

 


Return of Inspiration

=Awareness & Participation
=Connection to the landscape
=Behavioral change

Return of Inspiration

The Return of Inspiration is about increased connection to the landscape and motivating stewardship. Inspired landscape stakeholders connect more deeply with oneself, each other, and the social & natural environment in the landscape and develop a purpose and intrinsic motivation to take care of the landscape.

To further operationalize the Return of Inspiration, it has been subdivided into three domains. The first domain is ‘Awareness’, referring to knowing, perceiving, and being cognizant of landscape restoration. The second domain is ‘Connection to the landscape’, which is about the relation people experience with the landscape, other people and the nature that is in the landscape. The third domain is about ‘Behavioral change’, referring to a change in practices and land use of people in the landscape. The domains are further divided into several factor, which are described in the table provided below.

Return of Inspiration: assessment of current state

AttributeFactorRateExplanation
Awareness & ParticipationRestoration awareness2In the landscape of Stroomgebied, awareness about restoration initiatives and challenges is fostered through various ways, and different efforts are reaching different groups. In the Netherlands, as well as in this landscape, awareness on its challenges is increased by news on degradation by the nitrogen crisis. Tends to be overshadowed by protests by farmers, shifting the focus from the level of degradation of and importance of landscapes towards the challenges of the transition for farmers. This lowers the awareness on restoration and its benefits and opportunities. The government is contributing by their recent efforts in giving room for water in the country with eg. expanding floodplains and sharing knowledge on the effects of nitrogen deposition. These efforts might not result in an increased participation or awareness of opportunities for landscape restoration, which is discussed under the factor "Participation". Students in the region relatively high knowledged on degradation and benefits of landscape restoration but a connection to their own landscape misses. Among these growing communities of activistic and highly-educated people in and around Wageningen, restoration awareness is growing and there is potential to create a higher connection to the landscape. In communities in general, there is a low awareness on the urgency of restoration and people tend to miss knowledge on the benefits of restoration. Within StreekWaar initiatives, many participants joined out of an action to contribute to landscape restoration and connection to food and nature especially in their landscape, here we find a good restoration awareness. StreekWaar is able to share a part of this awareness and knowledge on opportunities by their weekly market stand in the square of Wageningen. Within the documentary about process of degradation and restoration in Binnenveld, with thousands of visitors, many inhabitants got insights in benefits of restoration in their landscape and acquainted with a big landscape restoration initiative as well as its challenges. The landscape of Stroomgebied Zuid-Veluwe harbours many sources of knowledge on restoration but in general, communities miss knowledge on the benefits of restoration and mostly miss knowledge of restoration, degradation and opportunities in their landscape.
Presence of changemakers4There are many local changemakers present in the Stroomgebied landscape. Really characteristic about this landscape is many agroecological initiatives to be found and 39 initiatives and producers are connected within the association StreekWaar. In the factor “Sources of Inspiration”, this association will be described. Serving as inspiration for others are some outspoken agroecological initiatives. Proud of their work in regional food production and regenerative farming, several farmers are strong about their story which have created change. Jan Dirk Remeker shares Esther Verhoef... Marcel van Silfhout They have opened their lands to all types of visitors, also selling their products on their land with Remeker having a farmerstore, Ommuurde tuin opening a café weekly and Graangeluk having an own bakery. They offer excursions and tours for students (also at the Wageningen University in the region) and policymakers and journalists, among others. These three are the most explicit but the landscape harbours more farming changemakers. The wageningen univesrity and research was historically set up with the focus on intensiviation of agricutlure but for the last decade has focussed on become a hub of sustainablility, aiming to become more sustainable as facility but also focussing research on sustainable agriculture. This institution serves as inspirtioninspiration for many and creates a breeding nest for ideas and active discussion of the topic of restoration and regeneration and set foot to the creation of Food Forest Droevendaal as well as Boerengroep, a foundation of students with the goals to connect the university to farmers, organising events of knowledge exchange. Louis van de Stok co-started the food forest Droevendaal and can be considered as a local changemaker. She is highly connected to students and nature-education and in that way inspires many others to start regenerative practises. She is also strongly able to share the story on the ecosystem services of food forests, leading to subsidies from Triodos and alike. Inspiration sources are described to start from awe of landscape and knowledge on degradation on landscape and how we are impacting that with our livestyle and choices...
Participation3Participation is high within communities such as student communities, nature foundations, StreekWaar and cooperations. The WUR facilitates popular courses on restoration and regenerative agriculture, Boerengroep and Student Farm organise open activities and Land van Peelen and nature foundations organise open excursions or have open visitors centra to learn about the landscape. Some foundations miss a holistic approach on community engagement and food and nature connection. Site-specific art festival Woest en Bijster is growing every biannual edition and thousands of inhabitants have watched the documentary Hooiland by local filmmaker Melchert Meijer zu Schlochtern on nature restoration in Binnenveldse Hooilanden, but these two events lack a connection to particpating in the landscape. For new entrepeneurs in landscape a course was organised on learning about the landscape and building stewardship, "Gastheer van het landschap", but this course is not continued. However, these efforts have been mostly isolated, targeting specific areas or individuals without a comprehensive plan to include all residents. People who are in a community are active in participating but outside communities there is a barrier to contribute to the landscape. While these initiatives have raised awareness and capacity among participants, broader community participation and involvement is still lacking.
Sources of inspiration3The landscape is full of sources of inspiration. Inspiration is found in the diverse ecosystems and natural areas where recreational routes are set up with educational aspects as information signs or excursions to share knowledge on the diversity and uniqueness of aspects of the landscape. There are several nature foundations present in the landscape, and Mooi Binnenveld and Stichting Renkums Beekdal among others. These foundations, as well as foundation Land van Peelen provide tours and walks through the landscape on nature and landscape history and characteristics. This contributes to fostering awareness but they seem to miss a holistic view on nature restoration with place for human activity in restoration. They do provide insights in restoration efforts in the landscape, for example the creation of space for water in the floodplains, the consrevation of the heather and the presence of unique birds in the floodplains and binnenveld. The landscape has many agroecological initiatives and regenerative farms. Some of the many agroeoclogical initiatives were described by the factor "Presence of changemakers". Historical garden Ommuurde Tuin has food subscriptions and offers a café to visit. Graangeluk, explained in "Presence of changemakers" is expanding with more hectares and a bakery in Arnhem. Regenerative farms as Veld en Beek and Nieuwe Ronde en Wilde Peen among other (pick)gardens have a waiting list for their members subscription and create a community for the members. Many of these initiatives are affiliated with the association StreekWaar. This association has 39 members and contribute strongly to strengthening each other's work, chains, their visibility and businessplan among others. The association StreekWaar offers a open market stand at the weekly market in Wageningen, creating an inclusive way to experience the effects of regenerative farming and their products. Together with the passionate presence of the producers themselves at the stand, it is a great source of inspiration of what the region has to offer and how it is and can be restored by means of food production. The market in the cities is common practise for many inhabitants and are described to be a inspiring happening with a high sense of community. Some farmers connected to Heerenboeren. *** The research and educational institutes in the landscape contribute to inspiration, see factor “Presence of changemakers”. The university offers students a master program and related courses in regenerative farming and nature connection. This inspires many students and people involved. There is a student farm where all students can experience and learn from regenerative practises and students started the food forest Droevendaal and Peasant Foundation, see "Presence of changemakers". The landscape harboures an activistic (student) community, who are active in creating events with the aim of knowledge sharing and awareness raising. It harbours a critical student community, partly due to the topic of nature degradation and the discepancies of the university, as the university fosters strong ties with the intensive diary industry. Also informative and interactive courses are provided by other student focused organisations as Otherwise with courses and workshops on food transformation and connection as well as equity. There is a growing number of events and festivals in the region with a strong connection to the local environment, as the biannual site-specific art festival Woest en Bijster and Zijn Vol Zin among others. The extent of the translation of inspiration into action remains a bit limited. Students and members of regenerative farms and the educational institutes are interested in action and contribution. However, action can be limited by knowledge exchange that is focused on theoretical thinking and conceptualizing. Limiting is also the absence of concrete plans and places where local communities can not only learn from and financially support local restoration but also participate in local restoration.
Connection to the landscapeLand stewardship2The extent to which inhabitants of this landscape are caring for their land is highly varying. There are some people that feel a lot of pride for this landscape, see factor "Place and cultural attachment", and do see the beauty but do not recognize its impermanence or vulnerability. Their actions do not reflect a sense of stewardship. This is because urgency for restoration is missing or people do not know how to take care and do not see possibilities to make local impact. Interviewees also highlight the attachment to traditional behaviour which does not foster restoration. Young people show a low motivation to care for the land. The general communities do not expose a high land stewardship. On the contrary, members of nature foundations as well as regenerative farmers show high stewardship. Some farmers exhibit a high curiousity to their land, its history and its needs and are concerned with ecoliteracy. They are aware of its vulnerability and feel a sense of urgency and motivation to take care of the land. To give some inspiring examples, historical garden De Ommuurde Tuin is guided by Esther and she puts herself in service of her land. She shares her story of collaborating with nature with visitors. Kees van Veluw is concerned with new ways of farming and in his practises and courses he focusses on prioritizing ecoliteracy. This also holds strongly for Malika Cieremans who in her food forest starts with observing and listening before acting in her plot. Marcel van Silfhout from Graangluk is strongly recognizing the urgency as well but .. also giving place for historical grains and explicitly weaving the history of his plots into his care for the land.
Connection to Nature3All interviewees described the diversity in natural areas in this landscape as the main quality of the landscape. The people interviewed as well as many other inhabitants are delighted by the nature around their house. People are drawn by the diversity of landscapes to come live here and the landscape fosters lots of opportunities to learn in and from nature in this landscape, increasing the connection to nature. The educational and research- institutes offer a lot of focus on nature and therefore attract many different nature lovers. Nature as part of their identity is far fetched as people are not feeling dependent on the land. Products are sourced from different places and supermarkets are filled with mainly import. This lack of direct reliance lowers the connection to (the boundaries of) nature.
Place & cultural attachment3Looking at the broad communities present in the landscape, many inhabitants are not strongly culturally attached. Kees van Veluw shares that education on culture and history needed (e.g. routes along graves and pools and old farms). People do not know about the cultural history or the beauty of the landscape. People enter the landscape mostly, due to possibility to study or work in the region and as the landscape allows to live in a city while living close to diverse and more quiet nature areas, a feature not generally possible in the Netherlands. Interviewees shared that they returned also to this region, after periods of working in different countries or places. This indicates a sense of belonging, belonging to a culture of international youngness and eco-diversity in this landscape. We also see that many farms are taken over by their offspring and therefore belonging to the same family for generations, with the striking example of Remeker which will be taken over by the 13th generation. Herefore, place and cultural attachment is fairly developed and can be strengthened in many ways....
Sense of hope and purpose3All interviewees do see the challenges of the increasing human impact on the region, either the degree of infrastructure and building for the growing amount of inhabitants as well as their pressure on the natural areas by recreation and pollution. People do not experience fear for their possibility to live in the landscape as well as working and do recognize this landscape one of the better places to live in the Netherlands. Because of the momentum in regenerative agriculture and nature awareness, see factor "Momentum", interviewees see opportunities in the future for expanding restoration practises and opportunities for their work. Kees van Veluw described a growing amount of investments in initiatives by for example Greenchoice and expects more opportunities for funding and financial mechanisms for restoration in the future. The interviewees see gaps in awareness, urgency and education but see purpose for them in this landscape to work on that.
Sense of healing3People in the landscape are deeply embedded in a western lifestyle, with, to put formally, great threats to mental and physical health. The great access to nature areas to wind down and recreate facilitates benefits of overall health. Even more prominently are the benefits in the places where community supported agriculture takes place are of high value for inhabitants to reconnect with nature, others and themselves, improving mental health and the local participation enables physical engagement. Due to the high concentration of regenerative farms and ability to participate in activities, workshops or volunteering, there are many opportunities to engage in restoration activities in this landscape. Examples are volunteering at Ommuurde Tuin, picking vegetables at the picking gardens and walking through the fields of GraanGeluk. However, many farms and restoration practises do not actively involve inhabitants or members in their practises. There is a growing attention to mental health benefits of these activities but this is mainly seen in the higher educated communities.
Behavioral changeRegeneration support & momentum3There is growing support for restoration efforts and regenerative farming practices, particularly among alternative leftist communities as well as ones who have been educated in alternative farming methods and scientific research. This momentum is mostly driven by the bigger movement of awareness on reconnecting with nature and local food in the Netherlands. This movement got an impulse in the COVID crisis where people had to stay home and were looking for nearby places to walk, buy and contribute and there was more money for food. Therefore we see waiting lists for several regenenartive initiatives as Nieuwe Ronde, Wilde Peen and Henks pluktuin. After crisis, Ommuurde Tuin is having a harder time to fill the subscriptions due to costs of subscription. StreekWaar is growing steadly. Momentum is also affected by the farmer and nitrogen crisis in the country, where people show greater support for alternative methods but there is also resistance because of increasingly tight legislations from governmental bodies. Groups as Boerengroep are bridging this gap and lead to more regeneration support. Awareness on degradation at governmental level leads to law on soil and water stirring policy but application and support is lacking. Art and culture movements are tapping into the general momentum of nature and food connection. The festival Woest en Bijster is growing and created inpsiration for art routes through Binnenveld. Events as Zijn vol Zin, Food&Fun, Reclaim the Seeds are popping up. Wageningen University and Research is slowly shifting focus to more education and research on regenerative practises. Momentum is somewhat limited by difficulties finding land and finance to adopt practises.
Land-users adopting improved practices2As described in the latter factor, there is great momentum in the landscape but limitations in adopting regenerative practises. They have several natures. Starting a regenerative business is a riskful investment because of high financial and labour investments and limited possiblities in locations that allow for this designation. Nature foundations and legislation are supporting restoration and lower input farming practises but aslo one of the reasons that there is limited location for practises as a “nature” designation does not allow for food production, even in sustainable way. There are new goals of focusing on water and soil stirring law by governmental bodies but application is lacking yet. Improved practises are adopted by farmers due to increasingly tight legislations from governmental bodies but sometimes intrinsic support of farmers is missing, which inhibits increase in land stewardship. People are inspired by visits to farms as Remeker but this targets moslty individuals and an effect on land-users adoption is harder to capture.
Replication of initiatives2The replication of initiatives by non-target groups is fairly limited, especially in the regenerative agriculture sector. There are several cooperations formed in the landscape which greatly supported adoption and replication but their range remains limited. There are not yet fieldlabs inspired by the landscape and replication mostly stays within formed cooperations or between individuals. Farmers financed by Triodos or Rabobank report no replication by other farmers financed. Adoption of tools and method is not reported well but could have had beneficial impact. Cultural heritage and awareness is strengthened in the region by for example events as Woest en Bijster and Hooiland documentary, causing the strenghtening of culture routes through Binnenveld. This factor could be biased by missing evidence of replication by interviewees.

Natural Returns

Description of the ecosystems within the landscape

Natural Returns are about increasing the health of the ecosystems in a landscape. This assessment is conducted at the biome level, as most landscapes encompass a mosaic of ecosystems and anthropogenic land use types (e.g. croplands). For the purpose of the 4 Returns diagnosis, the natural returns are assessed separately for each of the major ecosystems and land use types that can be distinguished in the landscape, following the IUCN Global Ecosystem Typology. This ecosystem classification framework comprises a nested hierarchy of units, distinguishing Realms, Biomes and Functional groups. Anthropogenically modified ecosystems/ land-use types are also incorporated into this typology. As a rule of thumb, ecosystems and land use types that cover > 5% of the landscape are assessed in the 4 Returns Diagnosis.

To further operationalize Natural Returns, it has been subdivided into three domains. The first domain is assessed at the entire landscape level and is called ‘Landscape and seascape characteristics’. This domain focuses on characteristics of the entire landscape, including ecosystem diversity, connectivity, and fragmentation. The other two domains are assessed per ecosystem: ‘Biodiversity & Ecosystem characteristics’ and ‘Ecosystem services’. However, certain ecosystem services predominantly relate to the ecosystem level, while others have broader relevance across the entire landscape. The ecosystem services ‘Food,’ ‘Wood and other raw materials,’ and ‘Carbon sequestration and storage’ are assessed per ecosystem, whereas ‘Water flow regulation services’ and ‘Freshwater supply’ are described at the landscape level. In the sections below, a description of the landscape and seascape characteristics and the landscapes’ major ecosystems can be found.


Landscape charactericstics

=Landscape and seascape characteristics
=Ecosystem services

Landscape characteristics: assessment of current state

AttributeFactorRateExplanation
Landscape and seascape characteristicsEcosystem diversity3The landscape harbours a great diversity of ecosystems, especially within the Netherlands, as a varying relief in height and the water shape the landscape strongly, creating different habitats. This gives rise to many different habitats of high value and uniqueness, as the Binnenveld, the uiterwaarden (the floodplains of the Nederrijn), the Renkumsbeekdal and the Veluwe region. The glacial hills facilitated a waterflow from the Veluwe to the river Rhine, creating streamvalleys with higher waterlevels. The Renkums beekdal here is fostering a specific habitat. In between the Veluwe and the hills of the Heuvelrug on the west, we find an originally wet region, because of the rising seepage. Here formed peat within the sandy soils of this region. The waterlevels here have been lowered for agriculture which have affected the shallow water flows in this landscape. The relative short distance in between these hills, together with the clear valueable seepage water create sharp contrasts and transitions and many gradients in the landscape. This gives the Binnenveld a high ecological value. Recent restoration measures, to counter the effect of the nitrogen deposition in the region caused by high agricultural activity, in the Binnenveld, taking away nutrient rich layers created more favourable and pourer conditions for blauwgrasland to reappear again. Bordering to the Veluwe, heather fields are prominent in the north of the landscape, togheter with den forests. This larger natural area harbours many bigger mammals. With the Rhine flowing in the south, a lot of clay is deposited. We find here the floodplains of high value for birds, water mitigation and recreation. Here, dykes are constructed. The strength of this landscape is found in its contrasts in waterlevel and elevation, providing inspiring views and diversity of species as well as possibilities in various agricultural practises.
Landscape connectivity2The landscape of Stroomgebied Zuid Veluwe is marked by the high density of humans living in several villages and cities. This comes with highly constructed human infrastructure of provincial roads and highways of asphalt as well as a trainline and small scale fencing etc. This hihgly limits the landscape connectivity, emphasized by Foundation Renkums beekdal among others. But there are bright spots in connectivity here: The bordering Veluwe provides a larger habitat for bigger mammals like the deer and wolf, that returned to the landscape in 2019 again. In the north of Bennekom the wolf has appeared as well, indicating improved connectivity. There are not yet great human-wild life conflicts. In June 2024 a plan of the Province of Gelderland was announced that aims to connect the dry Veluwe with the wet floodplains of the Nederrijn, to create a frog and big fauna tunnel under the roads of N225. Although the landscape is highly urbanized, managed and cultivated with no presence of wild areas anymore, there are many home gardens, forest patches, ecological vegetable gardens especially around the municipality Wageningen, and improved policy for less mowing in all municipalites. This helps increasing the habitat for plant species and pollinators to disperse and helps strengthening the role of urbanized areas as ecological corridors. The waterbodies in the landscape are highly connected by the deep-water flows and Vallei en Veluwe report describe a high interdependence of several more shallow waterbodies in the landscape.
Ecosystem servicesCapacity to regulate water flow2This landscape is highly altered and shaped by the water flow. The Veluwe contains great amounts of deep ground water and retaining it, creating smaller water streams and seepage water highly shaping the diversity in the landscape. The landscape has many water flows and has been functioning as a water shed and a water way mostly. Space is given to excessive waterflows from the Rhine in the Uiterwaarden where peak flows are mitigated. The heather and open lands create a high ability to retain water but this is under pressure as the evaporation of water has increased by denwood production as well as urbanisation. Past measures were mostly focussed on letting water flow out to lower water levels for agriculture especially in the west of Wageningen and Ede. of which the consequences were seen with dry (dangerously) summers in 2022 and 2023. Herefore, the landscape faces challenges due to loss of water retention and increased seasonal drought risks. In the spring of 2024, there was an extreme amount of rain in the landscape, strongly limiting the farmers to sow and harvest. The agricultural sector was highly impacted by the excess of water. This shows the increasing extremeties in this landscape. Opportunities lay in promoting land use with regenerative agriculture, open heather and grasslands as well as decreasing the amount of production forest and tackling the water demand which is discussed in the next factor.
Freshwater supply2This region is a great source of fresh water but this has become under pressure. Demands of freshwater for human consumption has increased over the years and here drinking water company Vitens is assessing groundwater. A great pressure on the freshwater supply is the local industry, where paper factory Parenco plays the greatest role. The evaporation of water has increased, and the water retention has been affected negatively as heath and open lands are in competition with den wood production and urbanisation. There is an ongoing conversation and debate with Parenco but in the 20 years of conversation, there were no big changes. Provincial legislation might impact the amount of production forest in favour of water retention, but this has not yet been decided.

Ecosystems

Binnenveldse Hooilanden

Geographical history is marked by the creation of this area during the last Ice Age, and till the late Middle Ages the area was wet and inaccessible. Bishop David of Burgundy changed this in between 1473 and 1481 and the canal 'de Grift' was dug. This increased the accessibility of the sides along the canal and came into use as hayfields for farmers. In the last years, the area became highly degraded, threatening the Blauwgraslanden(H6410) and Trilvenen(H7140A). These highly valuabe biodiverse habitats are endangered nature types. The Binnenveld therefore obtained two plots (111ha) under the Natura 2000 status with the Habitats Directive. At the same time, 175ha is managed by Staatsbosbeheer 175ha and both Coöperatie Binnenveldse Hooilanden and Mooi Binnenveld manage each ca. 50 ha of the Binnenveldse Hooilanden. Because of the lowered water table and excessive nitrogen availabilty, due to high presence of livestock and other sources of nitrogen deposition this area had degraded greatly. In 2020, restoration practices of a great scale were finished which mainly consisted of tapering the area of its phosphate rich top layer as well as rewetting the region. The water system was reconstructed in diverse ways, which included closing ditches and the construction of the new Kromme Eem. Several other measures include adding clippings of prefered herbs and removing mowing cuttings for empoverishment.

Corresponding realm: Terrestrial - Freshwater

Corresponding biome: Savannas and grasslands biome


Binnenveldse Hooilanden

=Biodiversity & Ecosystems characteristics
=Ecosystem services

Binnenveldse Hooilanden

AttributeFactorRateExplanation
Biodiversity & Ecosystems characteristicsEcosystem health3The biome was in a state of great degradation, due to high nutient levels in the soillayers. This impacted biodiversity and special habitats greatly. The last years, several great restoration measures have been put into place in the Binnenveldse Hooilanden. The most impactful was the tapering of the area of its phosphate rich top layer as well as rewetting the region. The water system was reconstructed in diverse ways, which included closing ditches and the construction of the new Kromme Eem. Several other measures include adding clippings of prefered herbs and removing mowing cuttings for empoverishment.
Biodiversity3The prominent nature type in this biome is poor grassland, schraalgrasland. Also, we find flowery meadows, ponds, groves, hedgerows, natural fields and lime marsh in this landscape. Due to the iron and calc rich seepage water that comes to surface here, rare plantspecies are found here, for example diverse species of orchids, the klokjesgentiaan, moeraskartelblad and parnassia. Many birds are found as well, like kingfisher, cuckoo, buzzard and spoonbill, contributing to the characteristic landscape. A lot of improvement in biodiversity has been achieved with the restoration measures: the addition of mowing cuttings from different region increased the presence of many plant species. More importantly, the threathened plant Melkviooltje was found more frequent but still in low amounts over the last years as well as five species qualified for the endangered habitattype of Trilvenen are found in 2021 and again in 2023, namely Vleeskleurige orchis, Moeraswespenorchis, Geelhartje and Kleine valeriaan. These species however, are still spread and in low numbers, which makes it less likely that the management type of Trilvenen can not recover completely as planned. Therefore, the restoration of trilveen is still under pressure and therefore biodiversity is not "excellent" Impact by using hay with seeds from nearby regions.
Soil health & reduced erosion2Reports on soil measurements are lacking for this biome. Analyses by the Province of Gelderland described that the greatest challenges to achieve the European Framework Directive Water are the exceeding of the standards for herbicides and pesticides, heavy metals and nutrients and ammonium. This gives an indication that soils also in this biome suffer from pollution as well as a too high nutrient availability. Therefore, soils in the Binnenveld have been altered to an high extent with the restoration measures. Top soil layers have been removed and transported, taking out excessive nutrients from the system. On top of that, impoverishment management is applied, taking away mowing cuttings from the system. Research in the Binnenveld focuses on plant and fauna species encountered, the health of the soil is described in the reports to a lesser extend. The presence of specific species do give a clear indication on the soilhealth. What is in focus in Binnenveld , is the return of the habitattype Blauwgrasland and the investigated presence of some species indicates a slight recovery of this type, showing an increased soil health. But dry summers are expected to cause a release of nutrients by mineralisation, increasing pressure on Trilveen development. Next to this, plants normally found in wet and swampy sites as Pijptorkruid, Zeegroene muur, 12 Moerasbasterdwederik, Groot blaasjeskruid, Moerasviooltje and Poelruit, were lowering in amounts as well. On the other hand, kruipende moerasweegbree and vlottende bies have spontanously settled which show up in nutrient poor, buffered waters, indicating a positive effect on soil and water health, including recovery of water retention.
Water quality & hydromorphology2In the Binnenveld, there are no records of soil or water samples. Water quality is highly impacting the pristine and sensitive vegetation in especially this biome and therefore the quality of water can be deduced from the inventarisations of flora. This shows that the biome is threatened by high nutrient availability but there are improvements. In other inventarisations, amphibians were investigated and different general species were encountered. Here fish were not the aim but there were some fish observed as well. Only one inventarisation has been executed so far. Water ways are deconstructed and made more natural, undoing the canalization.
Ecosystem servicesSustainability of food extraction3A part of the biome of the Binnenveld is designated to bird and habitat directives and this leaves possibilities for regenerative livestock farming with open lands. This allows for the production of high quality fodder and potential sustainable milk production. THere are still some high input livestock farmers around the biome and there is not a clear notion that production is for the local food chain. There is a new cooperative Coöperatie Binnenveldse Hooilanden of 7 farmers that are aiming for no-input farming. One of them is Boerderij Hooilanden and they deliver their produce to Streekwaar.
Sustainability of wood and other resource extraction0No notion of medicinal plant collection or other forms of resource extraction.
Carbon sequestration and storage2The area used to be made from peat, which has a high potential of carbon capture. By the lowered water table, peat has been threathened in this biome. By raising the groundwater level in peat areas, the peat recovers. Less CO2 is then released, and the plants can even store CO2. This is precision work, because if the peat becomes too wet and becomes a kind of swamp, this can lead to the formation of swamp gases in the form of methane. And methane has an even higher greenhouse effect than CO2. Wetting peat is a long-term process and requires an integrated area approach. Staatsbosbeheer is managing the peat restoration but there are no reports on the status of the carbon stocks potential and how this is changing with the current measures. Rewetting helps increasing the formation of peat and therefore the amount of carbon stored in the biome. But this is a sensitive process and while there are signs of recovery of the trilveen, it has been reported that the expectation is that the trilveen cannot recover over the whole area. This gives a not too good expectation for the carbon sequestration potential.

Ginkelse Heide

The Ginkelse Heide is a heathland area that alternates with forest. It compromises the south west part of the bigger nature area the Veluwe, the largest push moraine complex in the Netherlands. The Ginkelse Heide is famous for its well visited heathlands that bloom in end summer and because of its history in World War II. Here, on September 17, 1944, Allied airborne landings took place on the Ginkelse Heide as part of Operation Market Garden, which are commemorated annually. There is a flock of approximately 160 sheep on the Ginkelse Heide.

Corresponding realm: Terrestrial - Freshwater

Corresponding biome: Shrublands and shrubby woodlands biome


Ginkelse Heide

=Biodiversity & Ecosystems characteristics
=Ecosystem services

Ginkelse Heide

AttributeFactorRateExplanation
Biodiversity & Ecosystems characteristicsEcosystem health2The area has large open heatherfields and smallscale farmlands (bolle akkers and hay fields). It has a varying landscape with fields, meadows, hay meadows, seepage ponds, hedgerows, hedges, bushes, avenues, herb-rich ditches and verges. This creates a specific habitat. There is a need for active management of heather because afforestation will threaten the growth of the heather, which has high recreational value as well as value for increasing water infiltration and creating a special habitat. Nitrogen deposition is highly prevalent here and threatening biodiversity of the heather. The area is also under pressure by recreation as the paths for humans and dogs increase erosion and risk of above ground pollution. The road crossing the area through the middle creates a lot of disturbance, pressure from parking and cars and habitat fragmentation.
Biodiversity2In the Ginkelse Heide there are several types of heather: struikheide, dopheide as well as rare kraaiheide and lavendelheide. This varied cultural landscape is the habitat of a specific, but very diverse flora and fauna. However, many of the culture-bound species are now endangered species – think, for example, of the plant community 'arable flora' and dependent 'farmland birds' such as partridge and skylark. Nitrogen deposition, direct human pressure and the natural spread of the forest is also threatening these species, but there are no records of the changes of the population. Deer and boars are found here in this biome.
Soil health & reduced erosion2Soils are threatened by nitrogen deposition and erosion due to human activity and dogs brought along by them. The latter disturb the relief and the microclimates in the landscape. There are more rules laid out for dogowners to lower the disturbance. This biome is prone to droughts due to the high and increasing water demand for agriculture, fresh water and urban use
Water quality & hydromorphology2This biome is prone to droughts as it is compromises of elevated, sandy soils. Documentation of Vallei and Veluwe describe that the water is too deep for trees to reach it and therefore trees are dependent on the rain water. The high and increasing water demand for agriculture, fresh water, urban use in the greater region is a great pressure on the water availablilty. Also, a great amount of water is lost due to evaporation, but the size of these losses can not be concluded as research has not been done with sufficient precision (according to Expert dialogue on The Veluwe "Begrijpen we het watersysteem?"). Evaporation losses are mostly linked to the planting of the evergreen dens, for production forests.
Ecosystem servicesSustainability of food extraction0There is little notion of food production and wild harvesting in this biome.
Sustainability of wood and other resource extraction2Sheep are herded in this region. They ensure the growth of the heather by grazing on tree seedlings and grasses, but also drop nutrients in the biome. Their wool is used in the region which has sustainable functions. Wood produced in the Veluwe increases the evaporation and therefore the loss of water from this biome, increasing risks of drought. The Province might apply legislation by not planting new dens which helps increasing the water infiltration in this region.
Carbon sequestration and storage0The potential of carbon sequestration is not mentioned in reports and expected is that this biome highly contributes to carbon storage.

Renkums beekdal

Corresponding realm: Freshwater

Corresponding biome: Tropical-subtropical forestsRivers and streams


Renkums beekdal

=Biodiversity & Ecosystems characteristics
=Ecosystem services

Renkums beekdal

AttributeFactorRateExplanation
Biodiversity & Ecosystems characteristicsEcosystem health2The stream valleys are geomorphologically and ecologically valuable because they are still almost completely intact. These systems fed by seepage water are home to unique natural values and landscapes. The area also has the potential to function as a robust ecological connection between the Veluwe and the river area. Before the area can actually function as a connection, the necessary barriers still have to be removed. There are a number of inconvenient infrastructure bottlenecks - mainly roads and the railway, but also fencing and buildings that bisect the area. In addition, water management has been seriously disrupted due to desiccation. Due to, among other things, water withdrawals by industry, farmers and for drinking water extraction, but also due to the water use of local residents, no water flows through the streams for large parts of the year. The Renkum streams have the Highest Ecological Level (HEN) status. And the Heelsum streams are also Water Framework Directive (KRW) water bodies. The stream valleys form one of the Dutch Natura 2000 areas and therefore have a protected status.
Biodiversity3Reports on this biome report a decrease in and pressure on biodiversity, but there are no official reports on population changes. The website of the region indicates species found on an unknown date and lacks a description of population changes over time or endangered species. A recent newsarticle reports an increase in butterflies in the biome, also of endangered ones as bruin blauwtje, the groot dikkopje and the bruine vuurvlinder. This region harbours two species of reptiles and several amphibians and fishes are seen, but here lacks a thorough report. Watersnip is not found in the region after 2002. Still many species of birds are found, with the ideal biome of the dead standing trees among others. The endangered kerkuil disappeared in 2015. Bats are present in great diversity. Diverse voles, deer and fox are spotted in Renkums Beekdal but the presence of bigger mammals is limited. The landscape suffers from habitat fragmentation and the potential of Renkums Beekdal to support connectivity is limited by the fences, busy main roads and the not-crossable highway A12 and train line. There have already been constructed ecoducts but the human infrastructure and fencing for horses is still obstructing the entering of native mammals.
Soil health & reduced erosion3The area and its geomorphological relief are in a good status. There are no great soil losses apart from erosion because of recreation and the related paths formed. This mostly affects connectivity and disturbance instead of erosion. The biome suffers from pollution of nutrients and chemical goals within the European Framework Directive Water for 2027 are not at all met and nitrogen deposition from neighbouring regions is threatening the Beekdal with acidification. No reports focus on the impact that has been achieved in the last years.
Water quality & hydromorphology2The landscape vision written down by Stichting Renkums Beekdal describe a good waterquality of the area. There are no reports on fish, invertebrates and aquatic flora and pollutants present in the water, but a great diversity of fauna and flora has been reported in the past. Expected is that the landscape suffers from nutrient richer and polluted waters because of deposition of nitrogen among others. The area is increasingly prone to droughts.
Ecosystem servicesSustainability of food extraction2There is no described notion of food extraction in the area by wild harvesting or local communities. Human impact and use is limited by the local foundation. There are some agricultural activities but do contribute to nutrient input. Hunting of animals in the Veluwe is reported to cause a calcium shortage in the landscape.
Sustainability of wood and other resource extraction1There are no records of wood extraction in this biome. Most prominent is the water extraction for the paper industry bordering the biome. This is the main consumer of water and highly driving the water shortage in the landscape. Tackling water shortage problems starts with targeting this industry.
Carbon sequestration and storage3The potential of carbon sequestration is not mentioned in reports and expected is that this biome highly contributes to carbon storage. The importance of the Renkums beekdal in capturing carbon might be interesting to inspect further, but its value for water retention and biodiversity enables more restoration.

Corresponding realm: Terrestrial - Freshwater

Corresponding biome: Tropical-subtropical forestsRivers and streams


=Biodiversity & Ecosystems characteristics
=Ecosystem services

AttributeFactorRateExplanation
Biodiversity & Ecosystems characteristicsEcosystem health0
Biodiversity0
Soil health & reduced erosion0
Water quality & hydromorphology0
Ecosystem servicesSustainability of food extraction0
Sustainability of wood and other resource extraction0
Carbon sequestration and storage0

Social Returns

=Networks & learning
=Community resilience
=Social equity & governance
=Employment

Social Returns

Social Returns are about strengthening communities in landscapes by increasing livelihood opportunities (e.g. jobs), community engagement, and social resilience.

To further operationalize Social Returns, it has been subdivided into four domains. The first domain is ‘Networks & Learning’, and is about developing and strengthening the skills, abilities, processes and resources of organizations and communities in relation to landscape restoration, and  the presence of networks consisting of interconnected and engaged people. The second domain is ‘Community resilience, which is about the sustained ability of a community to utilize available resources to respond to, withstand, and recover from adverse situations. The third domain is about ‘Social equity’, referring to inclusive and diverse participation in activities and fairness in distribution of the benefits of restoration activities. The fourth domain is called ‘Employment’ and describes the provision and quality of paid labour services.

The domains are further divided into several factor, which are described in the table provided below.

Social Returns: assessment of current state

AttributeFactorRateExplanation
Networks & learningNetwork building & participation1In the landscape of Stroomgebied there is a significant lack of a cohesive network working on landscape restoration and sustainable farming practises. Within villages there exist strong community activism networks (mostly on historical or ecological topics) but these do not find or learn from each other within the region. There exist strong networks on agroecology and sustainable farming practises in the Netherlands, but there is a gap in the forming of such network within the landscape. Within the landscape we do find smaller cooperations of farmers (eg. Cooperatie Binnenveldse Hooilanden) which exhibit strong networks but are not connected among each other. Municipalities and other government structures strongly work together but miss a connection to the inhabitants: "They have other things on their mind". Next to this, these structures are heavily influenced and limited by decisions on national levels and therefore lack the capacity to drive substantial change in landscape restoration. Nature foundations in the landscape are connected to national organisations (eg. educational as IVN) but miss connection within the region.
Trust in networks3Some stakeholders report meaningful connections to municipalities, including long term trust and commitment to each other also financially. For example the municipality of Ede support strongly the collaboration of Woest en Bijster as well as social projects of Daan Overeem. Peter Sloot shared that reports from the government of the Province on nature restoration implied strong negative consequences for the agricultural sector to such a high extent that implications were adjusted to keep the trust between this sector. Because of the different character of the municipalities, there is sometimes distrust reported. The Wageningen University and its expertise in (organic) agriculture is not carried by all inhabitants and farmers and envy is reported. This can be a barrier hindering collaboration and knowledge exchange.
Knowledge & skills development2In the Stroomgebied landscape, the institution of the Wageningen University and Research is prominent in facilitating knowledge development. Its participation and exchange however is not broad, as facilitation is mostly available for students, in the form of education on university level including the master Resilient Farming and Food Systems and related courses (for university students). It does create a breeding nest for ideas and active discussion of the topic of restoration and regeneration and set foot to the creation of Food Forest Droevendaal as well as Boerengroep, a foundation of students with the goals to connect the university to farmers, organising events of knowledge exchange. Also, the landscape and its concerned municipalities are part of a greater network of municipalities called the Regio Foodvalley. They do not (yet) offer trainings or educational events focused on restoration and regeneration explicitly and have a strong stake in bringing along farmers that are not motivated to focus on restoration. Livestock farmers in Binnenveld connect via the Cooperation Binnenveldse Hooilanden which is described by interviewees as highly valuable. Local agroecological farms facilitate and welcome excursions on their lot with pleasure and this is made use of. Apart from that, there are not that much organisations organising trainings for arable regenerative farming. Tuinderij het Lichtveen offers workshops for curious individuals and interviewees report a stronger presence of individual connections or meetings to exchange. Streekwaar creates a platform to exchange knowledge but there is no notion of workshop facilitation yet.
Local knowledge use2Local knowledge use can have different definitions. In this landscape, traditional local knowledge is influencial in various ways and not only ensuring restoration. Livestock farming has been a practise really suitable to the landscape and its soiltypes. The intensification of especially live stock farming created a strong tradition in farming knowledge, but is resulting in degradation of the landscape. Many live stock farmers in the landscape hold on to their knowledge of farming, which weakens opportunities to share knowledge on regenerative farming and landscape restoration. Local knowledge and practises are not strong in the Netherlands as many children are educated in standardized school systems, which are greatly influenced by extractivistic paradigma and lack a connection to traditional (ecological) knowledge as well as learning outside. There is increasing interest in wild food harvesting and knowledge exchange about this but this is more present in hobby communities. Building on local knowledge, there is increased notion of Eco literacy in some influential farmers. For example, Malika Cieremans and Esther Kuiler practise their food forest and farm respectively with a deep curiosity to what the natural system does and needs. With understanding and learning to understand the natural system they adjust their theory of regenerative practises to try to serve the place and its ecosystem with their work. They share their practises by giving excursions and providing an open learning place. On the Grebbeberg and in the Veluwe, sheeps are herded with great respect for the environment and achieving restoration purposes.
Scientific knowledge use3With the strongly rooted institutions described in the earlier factor above, knowledge is generated, meaning there is a lot of knowledge present in the local surroundings of the region. But this is in contrast to drawing insights of traditional ecological knowledge, here several definition of local knowledge come into play. The role of traditional ecological knowledge is becoming increasingly important in scientific research, strengthening the paradigm of valuing knowledge of indigenous inhabitants. There is also notion of ecological literacy in farmers in the landscape, strengthening knowledge itself and enhancing ways of knowledge acquiring by eg. observing the landscape. Interestingly, the landscape harbours strong sources of knowledge and curiosity but it is noted by stakeholders that the part of using local knowledge is not developed enough. The institutions and their workshops and meetings are described to stay "too much in their head", leading mostly to conceptual thinking and evaluating instead of putting it into practise. Kees van Veluw reports that the university is demanding replicates and scientific proof while it misses putting in practice of what is already known and learning from doing. This highlights a substantial gap in the application of scientific knowledge for ecosystem restoration in general, as well as a gap in locally applying it. Interviewees did not report research done in the landscape itself.
Community resilienceFamiliarity and trust3Trust and familiarity are varying within and between community groups. In general, the landscape harbours smaller neighbourhoods and villages with low barriers to connect to each other. In the landscape we find many students creating communities and associations. There is less familiarity between municipalities and (student)communities. There are many well visited market places, neighbourhood centres and several regenerative farms and inspiring places alike that have created community, like Veld en Beek and Nieuwe Ronde as well as other self-harvest places. Students show less trust in governmental institutes, and Kees van Veluw shares that the great group of students in this landscape might facilitate a shift in rules more easily. Religious communities are found more pronounced in the landscape as well, including a “green church” having the potential to foster connection between communities within the landscape.
Resilience to climate change2The landscape faces extreme water events, and currently (Spring of 2024) the landscape endures an extreme wet year with varying implications. The waterlevel of the waterstorage in the Veluwe and its stream valleys is restoring after years of drought events but at the same time, a lot of farmers in the landscape face challenges. Livestock farmers suffer from compaction while regenerative live stock farmers report less struggle and hope to serve as an inspiration and show more resiliency to climate change. Arable farmers struggle with sowing and compaction. Farmers share some fear on the prospects of the changing climate but regenerative farmers diversify crops strongly. Interviewees report that people outside farming business do not show a preparedness and a greater occupation with the struggles of the present moment. There is not a strong sense of preparedness not so much, people are busy with the current year.
Food security3In the landscape of Stroomgebied, there is a great reliance on food import. The food is imported from other regions within the Netherlands but a great amount is sourced from all over the world. There were no reports on these numbers. On the other hand, a lot of milk produce is exported out of the landscape. Therefore, we would consider the food system in the landscape out of balance but communities are not suffering from this as they are ensured of food security with a lot of diversity in the region. There is a growing interest for locally grown food in the landscape as we see agroecological initiatives focussing on local sales and markets and there are waiting list for local foodpackage/picking subscriptions as De Nieuwe Ronde, Wilde Peen and Veld&Beek. The municipality of Wageningen is concerned with initiatives for nutritious food for children by connecting local food producers as Hoge Born with demand from community places for children among others, to improve the nutrition and environmental awareness of children. Improvements in nutrition are still possible and highly necessary as western countries suffer from malnutrition and obesity, but we did not have numbers for this landscape.
Basic services and infrastructure4In the Netherlands, basic services and infrastructure are one of the highest in the world. Therefore this is considered less relevant for the 4R analysis.
Social equity & governanceEquitable sharing of restoration benefits2In contrast to the widespread food security and basic servises in this landscape, the benefits of restoration efforts are less prominent for all inhabitants. Nature areas benefit from restoration and offer a higher recreational value, and these areas are accessed by everyone. There are initiatives to close nature areas for entrance of some people, potentially lowering the sharing of benefits. The benefit of an increased healthy (working) environment and healthy food are not equalably shared. Products and communities that are a result of restoration are only accessible if the household has more budget. Mostly more highly educated people benefit from local and healthy food and get to experience the nature area and the restoration efforts. Recent impact to increase equitable sharing include the collaboration of local producers with schools and community centres. Janneke Bruil initiated the offering of local fruit from Hoge born at local schools and community centres in Wageningen.
Inclusivity3There are equal opportunities to access the restoration sector. Women and men are represented in the working sector and implicitly included in implementation. Policy and decision making are highly influenced by the media and with the current emphasize on the reality of conservative farmers in the media is there a risk of non inclusive decision making. This also indicates that there is an high adaptabilty for the needs of marginalized groups in creating legislation and implementation but also creates a challenge in ensuring that other stakeholder - and research input/necessities are not overruled by strong voices. On landscape level, decision making and opportunities in the restoration sector are (said to be) accessible to all groups but decision making is limited by its scale on municipality and mostly provincial and national level. See factor landscape governance below. In the landscape, many restoration efforts are communicated in the Dutch language and especially in the centre of this landscape a fair part of the inhabitants is non-Dutch speaking. There are opportunities to increase equal opportunites by fostering inclusive communication channels for all inhabitants to have the opportunity to contribute locally.
Social equity & human rights3The last decade, traditional norms are not prominent in the Netherlands. There is increased attention to facilitation women's inclusion and the topic is in discussion. It is however reported that in meetings within the regenerative agriculture movement, men tend to take overhand in discussions. Therefore, inclusion of less heard voices keeps on requiring attention for equality. Neighbourhoods that are less developed are recognized and put into focus with the example of setting up moestuinbakken in the neighbourhood De Nude creating nature and food connection for young children and their families.
Landscape governance2Landscape governance is limited because higher govermental bodies are leading in shaping policies. The EU provides guidelines, aims and restrictions in policies around environmental....** but these lack a connection to decision-making processes in ground-level governance, leading to great inefficiencies in implementation. Many aims that are stated by provinces are not met. The landscape of Stroomgebied is also governed by different municalities of two different provinces, lacking one coherent plan for the landscape. Policies are highly effected by media and topics and opinions that are prominent there. This leads to discontinuity in the implementation of strategies and a loss of strength of research reports and equal stakeholder engagement in shaping policy. Here, implementation often falls short. While (national and provincial) policies appear coherent and ambitious on paper, their effectiveness is lacking due to a disconnection to the landscape reality. Strong limitations for landscape restoration are experienced due to land designation plans. Designated nature areas give strong limitations for implementing nature-inclusive food production. Here, Grond van Bestaan highlights the opportunities of an agricultural purpose designation for enabling holistic landscape restoration including food production but share that designations are hardly flexible. Land ownership, by for example ownership by the Wageningen University, leads to limitation in combining nature and food production as Food forest Droevendaal is unable to sell harvested products. For ensuring opportunities of holistic landscape restoration (especially in the field of nature inclusive food production), legislation on land designation needs to show more flexibility.
EmploymentJobs created2In the landscape of Stroomgebied, interest in the regenerative agricultural sector is growing. More jobs are created by the growing number of initiatives in restoration. However, many initiatives still heavily rely on volunteers and businesses are struggling with creating a sufficient income by their practice. Profitable businesses as Remeker are able to create an increase in jobs, but in general this is limited. Creating greater income by restoration practices enables more jobs created in the landscape.
Job satisfaction & working conditions3People working in the sector of restoration show a high level of satisfaction with and passion for their job. High hours of labour are reported but conditions of working include pride for the work and good social and spiritual connection to the work.

Financial Returns

=Household income
=Land user & business profitability
=Finance mobilised
=Sustainable markets

Financial Returns

Financial returns are about the long-term economic resilience and prosperity for communities and business. To further operationalize Financial Returns, it has been subdivided into four domains.

The first domain is ‘Household income’ and is about the financial gain for households and land users (farmers, foresters, fishers, tourism, other land use practices etc) from, linked to or as a result of restoration, regenerative and sustainable practice. The second domain is ‘Land user & business profitability’, which is about land user and business profitability relating to among others size, increased value, assets. The third domain is about ‘Sustainable investment in the landscape’ and is referring to finance mobilized and access to finance for the landscape partnership and projects, including innovative ways of financing, such as payment for ecosystem services or carbon credits. The fourth domain is called ‘Sustainable markets’ and is about the exchange of goods and services resulting from restoration, regenerative activities or sustainable practices.

The domains are further divided into several factor, which are described in the table provided below.

AttributeFactorRateExplanation
Household incomeHousehold income2The household income factor in the context of restoration or regenerative agriculture in Stroomgebied Zuid-Veluwe consists of different facets. Many households in the landscape do not earn their money directly from restoration or regenerative agriculture, but we miss data on the exact income of households in the restoration sector or regenerative agriculture. As the income from regenerative agriculture, or transitioning to, is described by interviewees to be low in general, we see that households have other jobs next to their restoration work to be able to maintain the arable farm, see "Diversity of income" next. Challenges in income are not caused by disappointing yields, but mainly because of the fact that their current systems generate low yields of several products, lowering efficiency of selling and revenue. Next to less stable, diverse income, a great part of income is spend on the high costs of land, affecting the total income significantly. Farmers share that the value of the more connected and wholesome practise on their farm is making up for their low income. Volunteers are needed to maintain regenerative arable farms. Some more pronounced regenerative agricultural businesses on arable land work with yearly subscriptions which cover the seasonality of harvest and give an expected, more stable income. But this is not secured over longer periods. Livestock farms (biodynamic) experience a growing income. Some farms posses greater capacity to expand their farms and gain greater income. Some are reported to sell their products to local and national stores. Biodynamic Natuurkorstkaas seller Remeker also has their own farm store which generates a great income, as a special group of customers is willing to pay more for the experience of the visit and the product. In the cultural restoration sector, we see an increase in budget facilitated by local governments like the municipalities, due to an increased awareness and curiosity in local cultural projects. This creates more stability for people engaging in restoration via the cultural sector.
Diversity of income3The income amongst arable farmers and other people in regenerative businesses is generally drawn from more sources as the income of their business on its own is not adequate. Therefore, diversity in income is due to the in general inadequate income of the farming instead of a conscious choice to spread risks. Arable farmers are described to practise their agriculture next to work in other sectors, especially in the beginning fase. They tend to grow many different crops at their farm, for reasons of resilience of the local ecosystem (in form of intercropping, rotational cropping, etc.), due to low demands of each crop (fostering food diversity for food subscriptions or small sales to specialized contumers as well as risk spreading in case of unforeseen weather events or other yield losses of certain crops. The region with its cities, villages and educational institutes offers various job opportunities and opportunity to combine jobs. A local farm store and a café are reported successful additions of income, and it provides a source of sustainable tourism and experience of the landscape. In this landscape, the high diversity of income shows an healthy balance of different working areas and fostering diversity in the diet and ecosystem, but also a way to protect against low incomes in regenerative agriculture.
Household savings2Household savings of ones starting/having a sustainable business in this landscape are generally considered low to the extent that starting a business is considered as a fearful step. Interviewees in the farming business shared that they do not possess of a great amount of savings prior to starting a regen business and their business does not allow for creating great savings. Respondents feel able to access money but a diversified income is shared to be necessary to create savings. This links to the need for diversity in income as that is shared to be needed to create a buffer for shocks. The obstacles to grow their household savings are among others the high investment costs, high expenses to land and low revenue of arable land. It is also noted that regenerative businesses will also save money as a result of lower inputs and input costs but this is noted for diary farms.
Land user & business profitabilitySustainable business development3In the landscape of Stroomgebied Zuid-Veluwe there are already many sustainable businesses established. In 2018 a platform was set up facilitated partly by municipality of Wageningen to strengthen the local food system. This inspired the opening of a sustainable lowwaste store De Gieterij (2020), selling various local products in one store, as well as the setting up of the association Streekwaar (2021), focussed not only on sells but also knowledge sharing, visibility and connection to the inhabitants. Many wide spread successful businesses are part of StreekWaar. There is a successful marketstand of StreekWaar at the weekly market in Wageningen, among other organic stands. Additionally, local food is brought together in the catering of Food of cultures, which is working with people from different backgrounds to assure local ingredients to come together in dishes from many cuisines. In this report we describe some sustainable business cases developed but we were not able to include costs and burdens for entrepreneurs. Interviewees considered it brave for farmers to start sustainable businesses, it is seen as a big jump. This indicates the presence of several burdens for entrepreneurs. Land costs and the lack of subsidies is obstructing starters, see "Access to finance" factor. The interest in other ways of landowning is shared by Evert van Harn. Foundation Grond van Bestaan which is enabling the Community Land Trust model, now has 10 intentional agreements with lands. There is a high interest for setting up sustainable businesses as this region harbours a lot of inspiration and knowledge on transitioning but there are several difficulties which limit the opportunities to set up businesses. Businesses are started out of intrinsic motivation instead of business opportunity.
Business profitability2In the landscape businesses are present for longer periods already, therefore we can indicate their profitability. There were no reports on profitability of businesses in the landscape. Remeker and Nieuwe Ronde, Wilde Peen are said to be very profitable, showing high revenue and high interest in subscriptions. This was also the case for the Ommuurde tuin, but interest decreased after COVID. Regenerative livestock farm Veld en Beek, now 25 years, has a lot of members, but is still heavily reliant on volunteers. New businesses keep popping up (as an interviewee shared: "initiatives pop up like mushrooms, this decade the mycellia of inspiration have grown underground"), like the popular Henks pluktuin. Insight in business plans is lacking in this research and it is not to be deducted if businesses use blended finance mechanisms or risk reduction strategies. With the set up of Streekwaar, a decrease in vulnerability for members was facilitated. For self-employed there are opportunities to join a "Broodfonds" where members help eachother withstand setbacks. The owners believe their business will not suffer greatly from climate change impacts because of their work might potentially gain more awareness because of climate change and regenerative farmers create their own micro climate, increasing resilience and thereby showing an example to others and gain more awareness and support in more stressed times .
Access to finance2Opportunities for grants, subsidies, and financial support from the government are limited, particularly for arable small-scale farmers. This is a great limit for broadening this movement and restoration impact. Interviewee Kees van Veluw shares that funders as Greenchoice do show trust in funding arable farmers but these bigger investors need a greater story and are difficult to access by small-scale starters. So there is a discrepancy between the de-risked investments of larger players (like WUR who also have access to grants) and the risks borne by the actual farmers, highlighting the need for fairer arrangements. Province of Gelderland and EU financed part of the managementfee and ruilverkaveling, also in Binnenveld, these subsidies mostly target livestock farmers. For cultural businesses and projects, the access to finance is considered rather good. Especially with strong connections and trust building, there is access to funds for cutlural events (with a connection to the landscape) and there is an increase in amount of money for local cultural events. Interviewees named some succesfully funded projects as Woest en Bijster, Wageningen Experience and the Stingerbol. For regenerative practises, access to finance is limited and limiting its adoption.
Improved yield2Restoration practises are not able to avoid yield losses due to extreme weather events. However on local scale in the landscape, regenerative systems show an improved resilience to water extremes because of improved water infiltration and retention, lowered compaction and diversified yield. Livestock farmer Remeker was able to allow their cows on the fields , showing greater productivity and sustainability of the land compared to non regenerative lands. Graangeluk shared yield losses in 2024 because of the delayed sowing period by the extreme water events but losses where minimized by diversified produce. Greater knowledge sharing on dealing with extreme water events in the landscape is expected to provide solutions to combat yield losses.
Costs of consumable and capital inputs3This factor was not investigated thoroughly and might be highly dependent on the business and the connections of the farmer. It is expected that consumbale inputs are affordable but especially capital inputs are seen as high investments for sustainable startups. Because of the proximity of many businesses and the potential of the network, sharing of capital inputs and its investments might be opportunity to investigate.
Sustainability of consumable inputs3There is a decreased reliance on pesticides and many farms that show a independence from it. Yields are not impacted. Mostly due to a broad knowledge on sustainable pest management and regenerative management techniques. Broader adoption is strong because of the university and other institutes or people offering courses on regenerative methods.
Finance mobilisedPublic finance mobilised2For cultural businesses and projects, the access to finance is considered not too bad and sufficient. Especially with strong connections and trust building, there is access to funds and there is an increase in the amount of money for local cultural events. (Woest en Bijster, Wageningen Experience, Daan Overeem projects) For agricultural businesses, access to finance is not adequate. Conservative livestock farming is subsidized, serving as an adversive incentive against regenerative practices. This report does not offer sufficient insight in the mobilization of public financing for the agricultural sector as well as regenerative sector and (nature) educational sector. Municipalities show greater interest in restoration but regenerative farmers do report a lack of public finance. Higher efforts of provinces are taken in nature restoration in the province because of the high value of the Nature 2000 areas. This report does not include exact amount of finance and interviewees have not reported finance yet.
Private finance mobilized2Private finance is not reported in the landscape. There are several estates in the landscape, contributing finance to the landscape, but the report does not include exact amount of finance. Finance via estates is said to offer opportunity to create areas where nature inclusive food production and living can be facilitated. The team of Stroomgebied Zuid-Veluwe received a grant from the EU Green Deal to support this landscape ***
New financial mechanisms1In the Stroomgebied landscape buying out schemes are the predominant financial mechanism for nature restoration and reduction of deposition of nitrogen. This mechanism is not innovative in the sense that good practises are not rewarded yet destructive ways of farming are bought out, leaving old and new farmers behind without a clear direction how to go forward. No new mechanisms for supporting restoration or regenerative activities were described by interviewees. Some stakeholders are exploring new financial mechanisms as carbon credits. Innovative is the way some businesses are asking money for their products, as Ommuurde Tuin is asking a donation based amount for the vegetable packages, to include people with various budgets in the landscape in the Ommuurde Tuin. More old-fashioned ways of paying a farmer are becoming more popular, for example farmer stores and returning glass bottles to the farmer. There is notion of local coins and some farmers (mainly several bigger livestock farmers) are highly in favour of using this coin unbound to big European banks, but in reality this is not often used. Overall, there are not many innovative finance mechanisms available for especially small scale arable farmers.
Sustainable marketsAccess to sustainable markets3The market for regenerative products is fairly big in the landscape. Local markets are popular and here is place for organic and local food stands, where ingredients are prepared as well. There are also local stores, selling regenerative products. The offset of organic stores is mainly limited to more highly educated communities or tourists due to the high costs of the products. Farmers also shared that their products did not access markets because of their sustainability but more because of their story and/or experience, which highlights the niche of the market. The value chain infrastructure could be improved, especially in the processing step, but the infrastructure is rather good. Efforts should be made in making products more accessible together with emphasizing its importance for sustainable landscape development. Products are used in schools, see "Food security" and in local catering. Increasing the market and access of local communities to the market will strengthen access for local producers as well.
Localization of value chains2In the landscape there is a focus on local value addition as producers sell their products themselves on local markets, creating value by adding their story to the product. Currently, the local (tourism) market serves as the main outlet for regenerative products, although it remains relatively small in scale. This is different for milk producers and here we see more export as well as the step of processing harvest. Processing steps are mostly outsourced from the region, creating less local value. In this landscape, there is no aim to address larger, national or international markets for regenerative farmers, as there is a strong focus in connecting local communities to the work they are doing and therefore there is a need to widen the offset in local companies and communities.
Complete business network3In the landscape, the business network misses some steps to develop a complete local network. Many products are processed in different regions, like the grains of GraanGeluk. A missing link is the absence of processing factories *** . Within the current network of regenerative products, input suppliers are in the landscape and StreekWaar is contributing to closing gaps in regionalized chains. However, the bigger institutes (hospital, educational and research institutes..) are working isolated and whose input suppliers are sourced outside the landscape. Efforts are needed to create stronger cohesive networks with collaboration. To strengthen what is described in the factor "Localization of value chains" there is no need to address national markets to increase the offset of regenerative farmers and the landscape harbours institutes that are of high potential to complete business networks. Efforts to create a common processing location in the landscape as well as targeting institutes in the landscape will address missing functions in completing the business network.
Certification3There are well working sustainable certification schemes. The organic network helped Remeker in the beginning of their transition to regenerative livestock farming, as it can provide tools and a network to support the transition. The label of "Organic" can help increasing the revenue for the product and give access to the organic market. However, for starting or transitioning businesses the SKAL (soil health) measures can limit the progress as some requirements do not take into account the impact that has been made or unmeasurable impact of even greater value. Businesses within StreekWaar use own criteria, StreekWaar enforces sustainability criteria through a Participatory Guarantee System (PGS). This is said to help build trust and transparency, as well as creating more room for sustainable transition. Therefore, some members do not have to rely on expensive sustainable certification schemes while benefiting from higher and more suitable revenue they can ask for their products. In general, certification is useful for transitioning, especially in larger businesses, and can provide useful network but for the small-scale farmer certification is mostly expensive and might not be necessary to create and increase local value of the products.

Reflections on the 4 Returns Diagnosis outcomes

Having discussed the current state of all Returns, some noteworthy factors, domains, or areas for further exploration will be highlighted. These insights come from stakeholders that contributed to this assessment. It is important not to perceive these as specific recommendations for follow-up actions, but rather as a starting point to shape the next steps, ideally within a participatory setting.

Return of Inspiration

For the Return of Inspiration, aspects or areas that caught attention based on input from consulted stakeholders and could be interesting for further exploration and discussion include:

1. Strengthening the potential of the changemakers: learn from and emphasize stories 2. Connecting interest and awareness to local action: understanding barriers and opportunities 3. Replication: explore knowledge sharing and adoption barriers and potential barriers 4. Improve awareness on ecological degradation and cultural history It stood out that this landscape harbours an immense amount of inspiring places and people. The return of inspiration is generally high in this landscape but there is great potential to improve and optimise. There are some unique inspiring changemakers and many of which their voices and their stories might have more potential if they are strengthened and brought to the broader community. The landscape has in general a relatively high attachment to place and culture (but this could be improved by more knowledge sharing, tours through the landscape, historical marks in the landscape, education, etc.), less to its history?*** and there is momentum in interest in sustainable practises. But the impact is attenuated as the connection to participating in the landscape misses, there are less ways for the community to participate and contribute locally apart from buying products or visiting restoration practises, linked to low land stewardship. Land stewardship is high within the members of StreekWaar but is present with the local communities in a lesser extent. The integration of marginalized communities and companies and education situated in the region with local restoration activities could be improved. Also the opportunities to visit the places of inspiration could be enhanced more. Also the replication of initiatives is yet limited. We see the cooperations being set up by livestock farmers and within certain biomes in the region but there is no greater, overarching network or duplication of initiatives.

Natural Returns

For Natural Returns, aspects or areas that caught attention based on input from consulted stakeholders and could be interesting for further exploration and discussion include:

Water retention In the visions and analyses of the Province of Gelderland, there is not a lot of focus on regions within landscape of South-Veluwe Watershed.

Social Returns

For Social Returns, aspects or areas that caught attention based on input from consulted stakeholders and could be interesting for further exploration and discussion include:

Network building and participation, There is a gap in the landscape of a network greater knowledge sharing on regenerative practises. There are several smaller regenerative cooperations next to the association StreekWaar but furthermore moslty one to one learning was described. There is a need for a greater network of knowledge sharing and ...*** Jobs created are in general low for the restoration sector in this landscape. This is related to the high reliance on volunteers for the sector and the low amount of finance available for the sector. Equitable sharing of restoration benefits is found to be mostly available for the people practicing regenerative practices and the more prosperous participating voluntarily and buying products in the landscape. A broader sharing of benefits is a great way to involve more communities in (the importance of) restoration in the landscape. Explore strategies to create opportunities and overcome barriers to the local communities to engage and participate in restoration locally. Landscape governance and legislation is currently limiting the possibilities in nature-inclusive food production. The legislation is not connected to the landscape and providing black and white boxes. Examine the potential to create a ground level governance to align policies to implementation in the landscape for the needs of this specific landscape

Financial Returns

For Financial Returns, aspects or areas that caught attention based on input from consulted stakeholders and could be interesting for further exploration and discussion include:

There is low profitability for regenerative and restoration practices. This is connected to low household income and savings, mostly due to low public finance mobilized. New financial mechanisms options are low in the landscape. Some farmers are researching carbon credits but this is not at all established. An important follow up is to explore new mechanisms to create opportunities for restoration. Complete business network is missing partly, as there are not yet opportunities to process products in the landscape and many products are exported and sold somewhere else. Exploring strategies to connect and enhance value chains, and promote local value addition could unlock opportunities for economic growth and sustainability.

Potential follow-ups

Hopefully, the 4R Diagnosis provided a valuable window into the landscape and played a role in shaping a holistic narrative to connect ongoing activities.

Once this 4 Returns diagnosis has been validated and discussed with all intended stakeholders—possibly, with a broader stakeholder group—it is suggested to think about viable next steps in progressing towards formulating a 4 Returns landscape plan. The nature of these next steps will vary based on each landscape’s stage and particular needs. Consequently, it is neither feasible nor preferable to propose precise follow-up actions. Instead, some examples of potential follow-up workshops will be shared:

  • Organize a participatory session to prioritize focus areas [link to guidebook module]
  • Explore or design new and existing pilots or interventions [link to guidebook module]
  • Define the 3 zones in the landscape [link to guidebook module]
  • Draft a 4R vision [link to guidebook module]
  • Create a 4R landscape plan [link to guidebook module]
  • Other …

Input and Contributions to this 4 Returns Diagnosis

Stakeholders

The conduction of the 4R Diagnosis was made achievable due to the contributions and active involvement of stakeholders, significantly shaping the depth and breadth of this report. Listed below are the stakeholders and/or organizations that provided input for the 4R Diagnosis:

Resources

If opted for, the diagnosis has been complemented by existing resources such as local information, literature, and reports. Although there may be numerous other valuable resources available, the documents that contributed to this diagnosis are:

Provincie Gelderland (March 2024). Ontwerpprogramma Vitaal Landelijk gebied Gelderland. Province Gelderland. https://gelderland.notubiz.nl/document/13991369/3 Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit (27 June 2023). Binnenveld. Natura2000. https://www.natura2000.nl/gebieden/utrecht/binnenveld Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit (27 June 2023). Veluwe. Natura2000. https://www.natura2000.nl/gebieden/gelderland/veluwe Gemeente Ede (December 2020). GEBIEDSPLAN DE GINKEL. Ede. https://www.ede.nl/fileadmin/ede.nl/Pdf-en/Gebiedsplan_de_Ginkel_2020.pdf M. van Lieshout, W. Braakhekke, I. Kegelaar, M. Pinkers, I. Puijk, H. Tax. (Februari 2024). Stromende Beken Verbinden. Stichting Renkums Beekdal en Wing. https://www.renkumsbeekdal.nl/wp-content/uploads/2024/04/Visieverhaal-Renkumse-Beekdalen_def.pdf Voskamp, I. M., Spek, T., Woolderink, H. A. G., Bolman, A., Vredenbregt, P. A., Moûrik, M. C., Hofland, S. E., Akkermans, R., Jaarsma, M., de Rooij, L. L., Roosenschoon, O. R., Timmermans, W., van Hattum, T., & Geuze, S. (Ed.) (2023). Vallei en Veluwe: natuurlijk een gevarieerde regio: Bodem, ondergrond en watersysteem in kaart. Wageningen University. https://edepot.wur.nl/645564 Beringen, R., K. Giller, I. Jansonius, H. Kloen, F. Koomen, T. Kroon, J. Pellicaan, F. van der Zee & W. van Dijk, 2023. SNL-soortkartering Flora Binnenveldse hooilanden 2023, Gebiedsdeel Stichting Mooi Binnenveld. Stichting Mooi Binnenveld, Wageningen. Staatsbosbeheer, Stichting Mooi Binnenveld, Coöperatie Binnenveldse Hooilanden, Waterschap Vallei en Veluwe (June 2019). Beheerplan Binnenveldse Hooilanden. Mooi Binnenveld. https://mooibinnenveld.nl/wp-content/uploads/Beheerplan-Binnenveldse-Hooilanden-definitief-juni-2019.pdf Jan-Freerk Kloen (2023). Jaarverslag monitoring 2023. Amfibieën van de Binnenveldse Hooilanden. Ravon. Mooi Binnenveld. https://mooibinnenveld.nl/wp-content/uploads/2023-Jaarrapportage-amfibieen-Binnenveldse-Hooilanden-gecomprimeerd.pdf Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren, Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit, Bij12. Natuurtypen. ObnNatuurkennis. https://www.natuurkennis.nl/natuurtypen/n06-voedselarme-venen-en-vochtige-heiden/n06-02-trilveen/Bedreigingen-en-kansen-N0602/

Development of the 4R Diagnosis

The 4R Diagnosis emerged from a collaborative effort involving Wetlands International, Commonland, and Landscape Finance Lab.


4 Returns Diagnose – South Veluwe Watershed

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