It is now increasingly recognized that landscape stewardship practices are core to social-ecological systems. To consider the implications of this, this paper focuses on one of the key characteristics of complex social-ecological systems: they are relationally constituted, meaning that both the elements of the system and the relations between them are important parts of the system.

The study investigates multi-actor collaboration as a key form of this ‘relationality’ in landscapes. A set of ‘gardening tools’ was used to analyse the boundary-crossing work of multi-actor collaboration in two cases of landscape stewardship in South Africa: the Langkloof Region and the Tsitsa River catchment.

This visual summary below explains the main methods and findings of the study.

The authors of this study are Jessica Cockburn, Eureta Rosenberg, Athina Copteros, Susanna Francina (Ancia) Cornelius, Notiswa Libala, Liz Metcalfe and Benjamin van der Waal.

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